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Department of Biology & Evolution; University of Ferrara; St. Borsari, 46, 44100 Ferrara - Italy
Fax 0039 0532 455715
From 14-16 June 2001, the First International Rodlet Cell Workshop was hold at Ferrara, Italy (photo below).
Confirmed researcher (assistant professor), Department of Biology & Evolution, University of Ferrara
Degree in Biology Institute of Zoology, University of Ferrara, 1988
Ph.D. Department of Biology, University of Ferrara, 1994
Teaching and Professional experience and activity:
Teaching Assistant in Zoology, 1988-1992 (Institute of Zoology, University of Ferrara, Biology)
Outstanding Graduate Research Proposal 1992-1993 (Department of Biology, University of Ferrara)
Teaching Assistant in Parasitology, 1993-1995 (Department of Biology, University of Ferrara)
Teaching in Symbiosis and Animal Associations, since 2000
Teaching in Laboratory of Parasitological Techniques for Aquatic Organisms, since 2002
Teaching Animal Biology, since 2006
My work is aimed at understanding some aspects of Acanthocephala biology. I started my research on this group in 1986 and have been examining acanthocephalan parasites of brackish and freshwater fishes. To date our work has focused on the life cycle, morphology and histopathology of this group. We use laboratory and field experiments in our investigations and have conducted work in many streams and rivers of North Italy.
Concerning the life cycle, we determined the life cycle of four acanthocephalan species which use different crustaceans (Amphipoda, Isopoda, Ostracoda) as their intermediate host (see references). With reference to the life cycle, the ecological aspects of infection (temperature, seasonal and annual cycle) are of great interest. Moreover, we also conducted an investigation of alteration of intermediate host behavior (see reference).
In reference to the morphology, often we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which allows one to observe minute details of an organism’s external features (see photo of Polyacathorhynchus kenyensis).
One of our current research projects is a morphological revision of the cement glands in acanthocephalan species belong to different classes (Dezfuli 2000; Dezfuli et al. 2001 b). We produced an antibody against a protein which is the main component of cement in glands of Pomphorhynchus laevis (see Dezfuli et al. 1998, 1999).
Regarding the histopathology, our study has mainly focused on the damages caused by helminths in fish and other Vertebrates definitive hosts. For this purpose we use immunohistochemistry methods and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, research on damages caused by acanthocephalans to crustacean intermediate host are in progress.
Currently, in collaboration, we carry out molecular investigations on different acanthocephalan species (larvae and adults) for identification purposes. Moreover, with immunological methods we detect the occurrence and role of some neuromodulators in fish infected with intestinal helminths (Dezfuli et al. 2000a).
Another our current research is investigation on presence and role of rodlet cells in fish (see picture). They were discovered for the first time in 1892 by Thélohan and since that time the exact nature and function has been subject of controversy. One of our goal is to detect and compare the occurrence of rodlet cells in healthy and fish infected with helminths (see Dezfuli et al. 1998; 2000b).
Recently, in collaboration, we carry out investigations on species associations among larval helminths in crustacean intermediate host ( Dezfuli et al. 2000c, 2001a) and the adult parasites in fish (2001c).
The members of my research group are :
Some Publications after 2005
- G. Bosi, C. Domeneghini, S. Arrighi, L. Giari, E. Simoni, B. S. Dezfuli (2005). Response of the gut neuroendocrine system of Leuciscus cephalus (L., 1758) to the presence of Pomphorhynchus laevis Müller, 1776 (Acanthocephala), Histology & Histopathology, 20: 509-518.
- M. Brunanska, L.G. Poddubnaya, B. S. Dezfuli (2005). Vitellogenesis in two spathebothriidean cestodes. Parasitology Research, 96: 390-397.
- B. S. Dezfuli, L. Giari, E. Simoni, A. P. Shinn, M. Manera, G. Bosi (2005). Histopathology, ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of Coregonus lavaretus hearts naturally infected with Ichthyocotylurus erraticus (Trematoda), Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 66: 245-254.
- L. g. Poddubnaya, J. Mackiewicz, M. Brunansky, B. S. Dezfuli (2005). Fine structure of the male reproductive ducts, vagina and seminal receptacle of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas 1781) Kessler 1868 (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea). Folia Parasitologica, 52: 241-250.
- G. Bosi, A. P. Shinn, L. Giari, E. Simoni, F. Pironi, B. S. Dezfuli (2005). Histopathology and alteration to neuromodulators of the diffuse endocrine system of the alimentary canal of farmed Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) naturally infected with Eubothrium crassum (Cestoda). Journal of Fish Diseases, 28: 703-711.
- B. S. Dezfuli, E. Simoni, L. Giari, M. Manera (2006). Effects of experimental terbuthylazine exposure on the cells of Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Chemosphere, 64: 1684-1694.
- L. Giari, M. Manera, E. Simoni, B. S. Dezfuli (2006). Changes to chloride and rodlet cells in gills, kidney and intestine of Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) exposed to reduced salinities. Journal of Fish Biology, 69: 590-600.
- M. Brunanska, T. Scholz, B. S. Dezfuli, L. G. Poddubnaya (2006). Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) Kessler, 1868 (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea). Journal of Parasitology, 92: 884-892.
- B. S. Dezfuli, L. Giari, A. P. Shinn (2007). The role of rodlet cells in the inflammatory response in Diplostomum infected Phoxinus phoxinus brains. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 23: 300-304.
- B. S. Dezfuli, L. Giari, E. Simoni, R. Menegatti, A. P. Shinn, M. Manera (2007). Gill histopathology of cultured Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) infected with Diplectanum aequans (Wagener, 1857) Diesing, 1958 (Diplectanidae: Monogenea). Parasitology Research, 100: 707-713.
- L. Giari, M. Manera,
- B. S. Dezfuli, S. Capuano, E. Simoni, M. Previati, L. Giari (2007). Rodlet cells and the sensory systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio), Anatomical Record Part A, 290: 367-374.
- B. S. Dezfuli, S. Capuano, E. Simoni, L. Giari, A. P. Shinn (2007). Histopathological and ultrastructural observations associated with metacercarial infections of Diplostomum phoxini (Faust, 1918) (Digenea) in the brains of minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 75: 51-59.
- B. S. Dezfuli, F. Pironi, E. Simoni, A. P. Shinn, L. Giari (2007). Selected pathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural changes associated with an infection by Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) (Cestoda) plerocercoids in Coregonus lavaretus (L.) (Coregonidae), Journal of Fish Diseases, 30: 471-482.
- B. S. Dezfuli, F. Pironi, A. P. Shinn, M. Manera, L. Giari (2007). Histopathology and ultrastructure of Platichthys flesus naturally infected with Anisakis simplex s.l. larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Journal of Parasitology, 93: 1416-1423.
- B. S. Dezfuli, E. Simoni, L. Duclos, E. Rossetti (2008). Crustacean-acanthocephalan interaction and host cell-mediated immunity: parasite encapsulation and melanization. Folia Parasitologica, 55: 53 - 59.
- B. S. Dezfuli, A. Lui, L. Giari, P. Boldrini, G. Giovinazzo (2008). Ultrastructural study on the body surface of the acanthocephalan parasite Dentitruncus truttae in brown trout. Microscopy Research and Technique, 71: 230 - 235.
- B. S. Dezfuli, A. Lui, G. Giovinazzo, L. Giari (2008). Effect of Acanthocephala infection on the reproductive potential of crustacean intermediate hosts. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 98: 116-119.
- B. S. Dezfuli, G. Giovinazzo, A. Lui, L. Giari (2008). Inflammatory response to Dentitruncus truttae (Acanthocephala) in the intestine of brown trout. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 24: 726 - 733.
- L. Giari, E. Simoni, M. Manera, B. S. Dezfuli (2008). Histo-cytological responses of Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) following mercury exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 70: 400 - 410.
- N. Nikolov, B. B. Georgiev, B. S. Dezfuli (2008). Cyclophyllidean
cysticercoids from Echinogammarus tibaldii (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) from
- B. S. Dezfuli, L. Giari (2008). Mast cells in the gills and intestines of naturally infected fish: evidence of migration and degranulation. Journal of Fish Diseases, 31: 845-852.
- B. S. Dezfuli, A. Lui, P. Boldrini, F. Pironi, L. Giari (2008). The inflammatory response of fish to helminth parasites. Parasitè, 15: 426 – 433.
- C. Levron, T. Scholz, B. S. Dezfuli (2008). Surface morphology of the tapeworm Cyathocephalus truncatus (Spathebothriidea), with emphasis on microthrix ultrastructure. Folia Parasitologica, 55: 309–312.
- B. S. Dezfuli, M. Manera, L. Giari (2009). Immune response to nematode larvae in minnow liver and pancreas. Journal of Fish Diseases, 32: 383-390.
- M. Manera, L. Giari, B. S. Dezfuli (2009). Rodlet cell biometry: inter- and intra-specific variability. Journal of Fish Biology, 74: 474-481.
- B. S. Dezfuli, S. Capuano, S. Magosso, L. Giari, R. Berti (2009). The lateral line system in larvae of the blind cavefish, Phreatichthys andruzzii. The Anatomical Record, Part A, 292: 423-430.
- B. S. Dezfuli, S. Magosso, E. Simoni, K. Hills, R. Berti (2009). Ultrastructure and distribution of superficial neuromasts of blind cavefish, Phreatichthys andruzzii, juveniles. Microscopy Research and Technique,72:665–671.
- B. S. Dezfuli, A. Lui, G. Giovinazzo, P. Boldrini, L. Giari (2009). Intestinal inflammtory response of powan Coregonus lavaretus (Pisces) to the presence of acanthocephalan infections. Parasitology, 136: 929-937.
- B. S. Dezfuli, C.
Szekely, G. Giovinazzo, K. Hills, L. Giari (2009). Inflammatory response to
parasitic helminths in the digestive tract of
- B. S. Dezfuli, F. Pironi, L. Giari, E. J. Noga (2010). Immunocytochemical localization of piscidin in mast cells of infected seabass gill. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 28: 476-482.
- B. S. Dezfuli, F. Pironi, M. Campisi, A. P. Shinn, L. Giari (2010). The response of intestinal mucous cells to the presence of enteric helminths: their distribution, histochemistry and fine structure. Journla of Fish Diseases, 33: 481-488.
- B. S. Dezfuli, S. Squerzanti, S. Fabbri, G. Castaldelli, L. Giari (2010). Cellular response in semi-intensively cultured sea bream gills to Ergasilus sieboldi (Copepoda) with emphasis on the distribution, histochemistry and fine structure of mucous cells. Veterinary Parasitology, 174: 359-365.
- B. S. Dezfuli, G. Castaldelli, T. Bo, M. Lorenzoni, L. Giari (2011). Intestinal immune response of sheatfish Silurus glanis and barbel Barbus barbus naturally infected with Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). Parasite Immunology, 33: 116–123.
- B. S. Dezfuli, L. Giari, A. Lui, M. Lorenzoni, E. J. Noga (2011). Mast cell responses to Ergasilus (Copepda), a gill ectoparasite of sea bream. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 30: 1087-1094.
- M. Manera, A. Giammarino, C. Borreca, L. Giari, B. S. Dezfuli (2011). Degranulation of mast cells/eosinophilic granule cells (MCs/EGCs) due to compound 48/80 induces dose-dependent intestinal contraction in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) ex vivo. Journal of Experimental Zoology, Part A, 315: 447-457.
- T. Scholz, T. T. Binh, B. S. Dezfuli (2011). Khawia japonensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea): another invasive parasite of carp (Cyprinus carpio) imported to Europe. Journal of Fish Diseases, 34: 943-949.
- B. S. Dezfuli, L. Giari, S. Squerzanti, A. Lui, M. Lorenzoni, S. Sakalli, A. P. Shinn (2011). Histological damage and inflammatory response elicited by Monobothrium wageneri (Cestoda) in the intestine of Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae). Parasites & Vectors, 4: 225, 1-11.
- B. S. Dezfuli, A. Lui, L. Giari, G. Castaldelli, V. Mulero, E. J. Noga (2012). Infiltration and activation of acidophilic granulocytes in skin lesions of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, naturally infected with lymphocystis disease virus. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 36: 174-182.
- L. Giari, B. S. Dezfuli, M. Lanzoni, G. Castaldelli (2012). The impact of an oil spill on organs of bream Abramis brama in the Po River. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 77: 18-27.
- B. S. Dezfuli, A. Lui, S. Squerzanti, M. Lorenzoni, A. P. Shinn (2012). Confirmation of the hosts involved in the life-cycle of an acanthocephalan parasite of Anguilla anguilla (L.) from Lake Piediluco and its effect on the reproductive potential of its amphipod intermediate host. Parasitology Research
- L. Giari, B. S. Dezfuli, L. Astolfi, A. Martini (2012). Ultrastructural effects of cisplatin on the inner ear and lateral line system of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 32: 293-299.
According to Lühe (1904), the earliest description of Acanthocephala, namely those worms having a proboscis armed with hooks, was made by Italian author Francesco Redi (1684). Since then, many eminent parasitologists have studied the biology of this group of helminths. The Acanthocephala represent an entirely parasitic taxon of pseudocoelomate worms, containing over 1150 species. Adults live as endoparasites in the alimentary canal of all classes of vertebrates in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and larvae live in the body cavity of arthropods. The arthropod becomes infected by eating the mature egg, from which the acanthor larva is freed into the lumen of the invertebrate's digestive tract. Later, this larva bores into the gut wall and enters the hemocoel. Here, development of the parasite proceeds through the acanthella stage up to the cystacanth stage, which can infect the vertebrate host after the arthropod is ingested. Acanthocephala exhibit considerable uniformity of structure and similarity in life cycles and reproductive processes. All acanthocephalan worms are dioecious and their reproductive organs are highly characteristic.
The most noticeable difference between the sexes of acanthocephala is that of body size; the female specimen is longer than the male (Parshad and Crompton, 1981). Other sexually dimorphic traits appear as differences in external features such the size and shape of the proboscis, as well as the size and shape of the attachment organ's hooks, the distribution of body spines, the presence of papillae and the position of genital orifices (Van Cleave, 1920; Yamaguti, 1963).
Acanthocephala have cylindrical or flattened bodies, usually white in color, with some species slightly yellow to orange. Most species are not much more than 1 cm in length, but some measure up to 70 cm. The body consists of two parts:
I - The praesoma comprises the armed proboscis, a more or less pronounced neck, the proboscis receptacle and a paired structure termed lemnisci which protrudes inwards from the inner surface of the neck wall;
II - The metasoma or trunk encloses the pseudocoel, in which are suspended the reproductive organs of Acanthocephala.
The classification of the Acanthocephala presented below is based on concepts proposed by Amin (1987). According to this scheme the phylum consisting of four classes, namely Palaeacanthocephala, Archiacanthocephala, Polyacanthocephala and Eoacanthocephala.
Acanthocephala attain sexual maturity in the digestive tract of the definitive host (vertebrates), generally in a specific site (Crompton, 1973). In this phylum sexual reproduction is the only form that occurs. In fact, in this group of helminths parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism and other forms of asexual propagation are unknown (Van Cleave, 1953; Kennedy, 1993).
Much of our knowledge concerning the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa of Acanthocephala is due to the contributions of Marchand and Mattei (see Crompton and Nickol, 1985). More work has been done on spermatogenesis and the structure of the spermatozoa than on the testes.
Acanthocephalan biology was published in a monograph edited by Crompton and Nickol (1985), and recently the reproduction of the phylum has been reviewed by Carcupino and Dezfuli (1999).
Amin, O. M. (1987). 'Key to the families and subfamilies of Acanthocephala, with erection of a new class (Polyacanthocephala) and a new order (Polyacanthorhynchida)', Journal of Parasitology, 73, 1216-1219.
M., Dezfuli, B. S. (1999). Acanthocephala, In: Progress in Male Gamete Biology,
B. G. M. Jamieson (Ed.),
D. W. T. (1973). 'The sites occupied by some parasitic helminths in the
alimentary tract of vertebrates', Biological Reviews of the
D. W. T., Nickol, B. B. (1985). 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' (Ed.D. W. T.
Crompton, B. B. Nickol),
Kennedy, C. R. (1993). 'Acanthocephala', in Reproductive biology of invertebrates, (Ed. K.G. Adiyodi, R. Adiyodi), Oxford & IBH Publishing CO.PVT.LTD, New Dehli, Bombay, Calcutta, pp. 279-295.
Lühe, M. (1904). 'Geschichte und Ergebnisse der Echinorhynchen-Forschung bis auf Westrumb (1821)', Zoologische Ann.... Zeitschift, 1, 139-250.
Parshad,V. R., Crompton, D.W.T. (1981). 'Aspects of acanthocephalan reproduction', Advances in Parasitology, 19, 73-138.
F. (1684). 'Osservazioni intorno agli animali viventi che si trovano negli
animali viventi' (Ed. F. Redi), Accademia della Crusca,
Cleave, H. J. (1920). 'Sexual dimorphism in the Acanthocephala', Transactions
Cleave, H. J. (1953). 'Acanthocephala of North American Mammals',
S. (1963). 'Systema Helminthum. v. Acanthocephala' (Ed. S. Yamaguti), John
Wiley and Sons,
Last updated February 29, 2012